Types Of Audio Connectors and Adapters
When many people think of musical equipment, they think of shining guitars and the hulking amplifiers that blast the music.
While these elements are certainly important, the often overlooked audio cable is the key piece that brings the whole ensemble together.
Whether you’re plugging in an electric instrument, connecting stereo speakers, or setting up auxiliary equipment such as effects pedals, the types of audio connectors and adapters play a crucial part of creating the perfect sound.
Audio connectors come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, including both male and female versions, and each one has its specific uses.
They can come in either digital or analog varieties, but almost all are designed to plug and unplug quickly and easily without the need for screws or other fasteners.
Many of these connectors can look similar at first glance, so it is essential to take a close look at the plug itself to confirm that you are using the right cable for the job.
3.5mm, 3.5mm Optical Mini Plug
Sometimes referred to as a mini-plug or ⅛-inch connector, the 3.5mm is famous for its ability to carry up to three separate signals.
These cords are great for computers or either mono or stereo audio, as well as microphones and headphones.
In fact, the 3.5mm is the audio connector most commonly used with commercial headphone jacks on phones, laptops, and other devices.
The 3.5mm employs one of the most common designs with a plastic insulator acting as a divider between the connector sleeve and the tip of the plug itself; additionally, the specific audio/video or stereo versions often have metal bands called rings that encircle the adapter between the sleeve and the tip.
Another favorite version of this connector, known as the “three-pole” version, uses two rings to carry both audio and video, making it an excellent choice for video camera connections.
In a similar vein, the 3.5mm Optical Mini Plug works well for digital audio functions.
Although typically only present on some Apple computers and devices, this connector can connect to other equipment through the use of an appropriate adapter.
¼-inch (6.3mm), ¼-inch TRS
Also called a phone connector due to its history as the type of cable used by telephone switchboard operators, ¼-inch audio connectors are ideal for professional setups.
While the shape is a bigger version of the popular 3.5mm connector, this cable can come with just a tip and sleeve, or with the full tip-ring-sleeve (TRS) head that makes it perfect for balanced audio lines.
These ¼-inch audio connectors are some of the most popular in the industry, used across the globe to connect amplifiers to instruments, mixing equipment, effects pedals, and much more.
Named for the Radio Corporation of America that introduced it in the 1940s, this standard cable is now known almost exclusively by its shortened name.
The RCA connector works well with several applications, notably the S/PDIF (Sony®/Philips Digital Interface) digital audio signal transfer.
Through this setup, an S/PDIF coaxial cable can transmit linear PCM audio or multi-channel Dolby® AC-3/DTS®digital audio.
For dual channel stereo applications, a pair of RCA connectors can transmit the audio signal to both the right and left audio channels.
This makes RCA connectors a popular choice for subwoofers in home theater setups.
In professional recording or performance applications, RCA connectors can team up with XLR inputs to connect both balanced and unbalanced audio sources, including mixing consoles, amps, recorders, and even CD players and tape decks.
Named for their bulging metal pins that bring to mind a certain yellow fruit, banana plugs work best for making speaker wire connections on speakers, amps, and audio wallplates.
These connectors often come in sets of two, and they are ideal for connecting to the binding posts on some high-end speakers and amplifiers.
The XLR connector comes in several formats, the most popular of which uses three pins for balanced signals.
This connector is famous for a design that lets the plug make contact on the first pin (ground pin) before connecting to the rest, thereby reducing the chance of damaging the system as a whole.
It also creates a balanced audio signal that significantly reduces electromagnetic interference and provides a strong, long-range signal.
This makes XLR connections a solid choice for everything from amplifiers to microphones to mixers and more.
A shortened version of “Toshiba link,” TOSLINK is a brand-name fiber optic connector that has since become commonplace as an audio signal cable.
Set within a squarish housing, TOSLINK was designed for Toshiba CD players but eventually expanded into a widely-used audio and video connector.
Although frequently used with receivers in surround sound setups, the LED transceivers found within the cable have a relatively short range, making them virtually impossible to use at distances greater than 15-17 feet.
Speaker pins come in a narrow, pin-like shape and can help cut a speaker wire connection.
These connectors hook up to both binding posts and push-on speaker connections, including those that come standard on many commercial electronics.
Many speaker pins can also accept bare wires, making them an excellent choice for custom adjustments or installations.
Most popular brands include a light layer of gold plating to reduce corrosion, so these pins can provide years of use if cared for properly.
Types Of Audio Connectors and Adapters
No matter what kind of connection you are trying to set up, there is sure to be an audio connector or adapter that is perfect for the job.
Although the number of options may seem daunting at first, taking the time to review each plug and its uses can go a long way toward helping you find which one you need.
These unsung heroes might not be as exciting as the bigger or flashier pieces of gear, but are an integral part of any audio setup and can make or break the quality of a connection and, by extension, the quality of your sound.
If you decide to record check out these home recording tips we wrote about.